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تعلم قواعد الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية silent letters in english rules

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تعلم قواعد الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية silent letters in english rules
تعلم الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية

silent letters in english 



Silent B


silent b letter


Rule 1: B is not pronounced after M at the end of a word.

Examples: limb, crumb, dumb, comb, bomb, thumb, climb, tomb

Rule 2: B is usually not pronounced before T at the end of a root word.**

Examples: debt, doubt, debtor, doubtful, subtle, subtleness


Silent C


silent letter C


Rule 1: C is not pronounced in the combination SC.

Examples: Muscle, scissors, ascent, miscellaneous, fascinate, scenario  

Exceptions: Sclera, asclepiad, sclerosis, muscovado, sceptic

Rule 2: C is usually redundant before the letters K or Q.

Examples: Acquaintance, acknowledge, acquiesce, acquit



Silent D


silent letter D


Rule 1: D is not pronounced in the following common words:

Handkerchief, Wednesday, sandwich, handsome

Rule 2: D is also not pronounced in the combination DG.

Examples: Pledge, dodge, grudge, hedge


Silent E

silent letter E

Rule: E is not pronounced at the end of words, but instead elongates the sound of the vowel before it.

Examples: Hope, drive, gave, write, site, grave, bite, hide

Exceptions: Giraffe, brunette, cassette, gazelle (You may be able to spot a pattern in these words; they have similar combinations in the last syllable. This shows that the exceptions are generally words with unusual stress on the final syllable – but not always! One example would be the word ‘minute’ as in the time-measuring unit.)

Silent G

silent letter G

Rule: G is not often not pronounced when it comes before N.

Examples: Champagne, foreign, sign, feign, foreign, design, align, cognac

Exceptions: Magnet, igneous, cognitive, signature


Silent GH


silent letter gh

Rule 1: GH is not pronounced when it comes after a vowel.

Examples: Thought, drought, through, thorough, borough, daughter, light, might, sigh, right, fight, weigh, weight

Exceptions: Doghouse, foghorn, bighead (As you can see, the exceptions are generally compound words i.e. words that have been formed by combining two complete words)

Rule 2: GH is sometimes pronounced like F.

Examples: rough, tough, laugh, enough, cough, clough, draught

Silent H


silent letter H

Rule 1: H is not pronounced when it comes after W (n.b. some speakers whisper the H before the W).

Examples: what, when, where, whether, why

Rule 2: H is not pronounced at the beginning of many words (remember to use the article “an” with unvoiced H).

Examples: hour, honest, honour, heir

Exceptions: hill, history, height, happy, hereditary (Plus most other words beginning with H that are NOT of French origin – and remember to use the article “a” with voiced H)

Rule 3: H is often not pronounced when it comes after C, G or R.

Examples: choir, chorus, ghastly, ghoul, aghast, echo, rhinocerous, rhythm



Silent K


silent letter K
Rule: K is not pronounced when it comes before N at the beginning of a word.

Examples: knife, knee, know, knock, knowledge, knead


Silent L


silent letter L

Rule: L is not pronounced after the vowels A, O and U.

Examples: calm, half, talk, walk, would, should, could, calf, salmon, yolk, chalk, folk, balm

Exceptions: Halo, bulk, sulk, hold, sold, fold, mould


Silent N


silent letter N
Rule: N is not pronounced when it comes after M at the end of a word.

Examples: Autumn, hymn, column, solemn


Silent P


silent letter P
Rule: P is not pronounced at the beginning of many words using the combinations PS, PT and PN.

Psychiatrist, pneumonia, pneumatic, psychotherapy, psychotic, psychologist, pseudonym, Pterodactyl


Silent PH


Rule: PH is sometimes pronounced like F.

Examples: telephone, paragraph, alphabet, epiphany, sophomore

Silent S

silent letter S

Rule: S is not pronounced before L in the following words:

Island, isle, aisle, islet



 Silent T


silent letter T
Rule: T is not pronounced in these common words:

Castle, Christmas, fasten, listen, often, whistle, thistle, bustle, hasten, soften, rapport, gourmet, ballet



 Silent U


silent letter U
Rule: U is not pronounced when it comes after G and before a vowel.

Examples: guess, guidance, guitar, guest, guild, guard

Silent W


silent letter W

Rule 1: W is not pronounced at the beginning of a word when it is before the letter R.

Examples: wrap, write, wrong, wring, wreck, wrestle, wrap, wrist

Rule 2: W is not pronounced in the following words:

Who, whose, whom, whole, whoever, answer, sword, two


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